Iowa Fish Atlas

Goldfish-Carassius auratus

Native: No

State Rank: SNA 

ITIS Code: 163350          

National Rank:  NNA

Global Rank: G5

Modeled By: Anna Loan-Wilsey

State Range:

The goldfish is a species exotic to Iowa, mostly introduced from bait buckets or aquarium (Harlan et al. 1987).  Wild populations have been found throughout the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Aquatic Subregion including several in the Cedar, Shellrock, Winnebago and Mississippi rivers and their tributaries.  The goldfish has also been collected in sporadic locations in the Central Plains Aquatic Subregion with specimens found in the Iowa, Des Moines, Skunk and Missouri Rivers.  Reproducing goldfish populations are also found in many man-made lakes and impoundments throughout the state (Harlan et al. 1987).

Habitat Affinities:

Self-sustaining populations of goldfish can be found in natural standing water habitats along streams and below hatcheries where large populations are maintained by escape. They can also be found in large impoundments where they are often used as bait (Pflieger 1997). The goldfish, being very tolerate of turbidity and high organic content, is often the predominant fish species in the most polluted streams (Smith 1979).  In Iowa, goldfish select fairly specific habitats, sluggish water or pools with abundant vegetation, thus limiting their distribution (Harlan et al. 1987).  Likewise, Robison and Buchanan (1988) found the most successful populations in small pools with dense vegetation.

Predictive Model(s):

Statewide Model: Range Only

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

Mississippi River Model:

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

(("pool" = 'S10') OR ("pool" = 'S11') OR ("pool" = 'S16') OR ("pool" = 'S17') OR ("pool" = 'S19'))

Missouri River Model

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

 (("pool" = 'O18') OR ("pool" = 'O19'))

Overall Prediction:

(("pool" = 'S10') OR ("pool" = 'S11') OR ("pool" = 'S16') OR ("pool" = 'S17') OR ("pool" = 'S19')) OR (("pool" = 'O18') OR ("pool" = 'O19'))

Literature Cited:

Harlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew.  1987.  Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323pp.

Pflieger, W.L.  1997.  The fishes of Missouri.  Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri.  372 pp.

Robison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1988.  Fishes of Arkansas.  University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas.  536 pp.

Smith, P.W.  1979.  The fishes of Illinois.  University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.  314 pp.

Data Sources:

Clear Lake Fish Management.  2002.  Field notes and unpublished reports.  Northwest

Management District, Fisheries Bureau, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Clear Lake, Iowa.

Coon, D.M.  1971.  A fisheries survey of the upper Skunk River, Iowa.  Master’s thesis. 

Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 

Dowell, V.  1981.  Collections in Cedar River Basin, 1956-1981.  University of Northern

Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa.

Fairport Fish Management and Hatchery.  2003.  Field notes and unpublished reports.

Southeast Management District, Fisheries Bureau, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Fairport, Iowa.

Gelwicks, G., J. Heitke, and G. Simmons.  2002.  Contemporary fish survey.  Iowa

Department of Natural Resources, Manchester, Iowa.

Lake Darling Fish Management.  2002.  Field notes and unpublished reports.  Southeast

Management District, Fisheries Bureau, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Brighton, Iowa.  

Lake MacBride Fish Management.  2002.  Field notes and unpublished reports. 

Southeast Management District, Fisheries Bureau, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Solon, Iowa.

Menzel, B.W.  1983.  Field notes: western and southern.  Iowa State University, Ames,

Iowa.

Menzel, B.W.  1984.  Field notes: Iowa-Cedar.  Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Olson, J.R.  1998.  Historic fish survey database.  Water Quality Bureau, Iowa

Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Paragamian, V.L.  1979.  Population dynamics of smallmouth bass in the Maquoketa

River and other Iowa streams: effects of habitat variation on the stream biota.  Project F-89-R-2, Study No. 602-2, Job No. 2.  Annual Performance Report.  Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa.

Paragamian, V.L.  1990.  Fish populations of Iowa rivers and streams.  Technical Bulletin

No. 3.  Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Schmadeke, D.P. 1977.  An annotated list of fishes of the Shellrock River, Iowa. 

Master's thesis.  University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa.

Wilton, T., K. Krier, and J. Mootz.  2003.  Stream Biological Assessment Database.

Environmental Services Division, Water Quality Bureau, TMDL and Water Quality Assessment Section, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Additional References:

Becker, G.C.  1983.  Fishes of Wisconsin.  University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

Clay, W.M.  1975.  The fishes of Kentucky.  Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, Kentucky.  416 pp.

Cross, F.B., and J.T. Collins.  1995.  Fishes in Kansas.  University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Public Education Series No. 14, Lawrence, Kansas.   315 pp.

Douglas, N.H.  1974.  Freshwater fishes of Louisiana.  Claitor’s Publishing Division, Sponsored by Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.  443 pp.

Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill.  1974.  Northern fishes; with special reference to the upper Mississippi Valley.  University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.  414 pp.

Etnier, D.A., and W.E. Starnes.  1993.  The fishes of Tennessee.  University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.  681 pp.

Gelwicks, G.T.  1995.  Fish movement between the lower Missouri River and a managed floodplain wetland in Missouri.  Master’s thesis. University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. 190 pp.

Kelly, G., editor.  1986.  Animal habitat relations handbook.  Missouri Department of Conservation and U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Jefferson City, Missouri.  293 pp.

Mizzi, J.A.  1994.  Zooplankton, macroinvertebrate, herptile, and ichthyofaunal biodiversity of riverine habitat on the upper Missouri River.  Master’s thesis, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota.  130 pp.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr.  1991.  A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico.  Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

Pflieger, W.L.  1971.  A distributional study of Missouri fishes.  University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History  20(3):225-570.

Pflieger, W.L.  1989a.  Aquatic community classification system for Missouri.  Missouri Department of Conservation.  Jefferson City, Missouri.  Aquatic Series No. 19. 70 pp. plus Supplement.

Pflieger, W.L.  1989b.  The stream resources of Missouri.  D-J Project - F-1-R-28.  Study S-20.  Missouri Department of Conservation, Columbia, Missouri.  

Phillips, G.L., W.D. Schmid, and J.C. Underhill.  1982.  Fishes of the Minnesota region.  University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.  248 pp.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott.  1991.  Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada.  American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20, Bethesda, Maryland. 183 pp.

Scott, W.B., and E. J. Crossman.  1973.  Freshwater fishes of Canada.  Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin No. 184, Ottawa, Canada.  966 pp.

Sheehan, R.J., W.M. Lewis, and  L.R. Bodensteiner.  1990.  Winter habitat requirements and overwintering of riverine fishes.  Southern Illinois Fisheries Research Laboratory, Carbondale, Illinois.  D-J Project F-79-R, Study 101.  234 pp.

Sublette, J.E., M.D Hatch, and M. Sublette.  1990.  The fishes of New Mexico.  University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  393 pp.

Thom, R.H., and J.H. Wilson.  1980.  The natural divisions of Missouri.  Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science  14:9-24.

Trautman, M.B.  1981.  The fishes of Ohio.  Revised Edition.  Ohio State University Press in collaboration with the Ohio Sea Grant Program Center for Lake Erie Area Research,  Columbus, Ohio.  782 pp.

Photo Credits:

Upper Left:       Photo courtesy of Konrad P. Schmidt, copyright Konrad P. Schmidt.

Upper Right:     Photo courtesy of Windsor Aguirre, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum Institute of Marine Sciences and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, http://nis.gsmfc.org/