Iowa Fish Atlas

Emerald shiner-Notropis atherinoides

Native: Yes

State Rank: S5

ITIS Code: 163412          

National Rank:  N5

Global Rank: G5

Modeled By: Anna Loan-Wilsey

State Range:

The emerald shiner is abundant in the larger interior streams throughout Iowa and in the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers (Harlan et al. 1987).  Distribution is widespread throughout the Eastern Broadleaf Aquatic Subregion but it is most prevalent in the Central Plains Aquatic Subregion in the larger Des Moines River basin, including the Boone, Raccoon and Des Moines Rivers. Populations of emerald shiners are rare in smaller streams.  It has also been stocked into Rathbun Reservoir in the Chariton River watershed (Harlan et al. 1987).  The dramatic increase in the occurrence of the emerald shiner since the 1940’s is related to the reduction in turbidity created by reservoir construction (Pflieger 1997).

Habitat Affinities:

The emerald shiner occurs in a variety of habitats, as it is tolerant of a wide range of turbidities, bottom types, and current velocities (Pflieger 1997). This shiner is characteristic of large, open channels of medium to large-sized, clear rivers and streams with sandy substrates (Cross and Collins 1995; Pflieger 1997; Robison and Buchanan 1988), though can enter the mouths of smaller streams (Phillips et al. 1982). Large schools of emerald shiners are often found in the middle or uppers layers of water (Harlan et al. 1987; Smith 1979; Trautman 1981) over firm bottoms (Clay 1975); and noticeable current (Cross and Collins 1995; Pflieger 1997).  

Predictive Model(s):

Statewide Model: by 8-digit HU [Decision Tree Analysis n=291]

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

((("DLINKR" > 2 AND "DLINKR" <= 3) AND "MAXELEVR" <= 1) OR

(( "DLINKR" > 2 AND "DLINKR" <= 3) AND ("MAXELEVR" > 3 AND

"MAXELEVR" <= 4) AND "SOIL_TEXT" > 6) OR

(( "DLINKR" > 4 AND "DLINKR" <= 5) AND "MINELEVR" <= 2) OR

(( "DLINKR" > 4 AND "DLINKR" <= 5) AND "MINELEVR" > 2 AND "STRAHLER"

> 4 AND (("SOIL_TEXT" >1 AND "SOIL_TEXT" <= 3) OR "SOIL_TEXT" > 8)) OR

( "DLINKR" > 5 AND "DLINKR" <= 6) OR

( ("DLINKR" > 6 AND "DLINKR" <= 7) AND "SUBREGION_" <= 1) OR

 "DLINKR" > 7)

Mississippi River Model:

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

("pool" >= 'S08' AND "pool" <= 'S20')

Missouri River Model

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

("pool" >= 'O17' AND "pool" <= 'O19')

Overall Prediction:

((("DLINKR" > 2 AND "DLINKR" <= 3) AND "MAXELEVR" <= 1) OR

(( "DLINKR" > 2 AND "DLINKR" <= 3) AND ("MAXELEVR" > 3 AND

"MAXELEVR" <= 4) AND "SOIL_TEXT" > 6) OR (( "DLINKR" > 4 AND "DLINKR" <= 5) AND "MINELEVR" <= 2) OR(( "DLINKR" > 4 AND "DLINKR" <= 5) AND "MINELEVR" > 2 AND "STRAHLER" > 4 AND (("SOIL_TEXT" >1 AND "SOIL_TEXT" <= 3) OR "SOIL_TEXT" > 8)) OR ( "DLINKR" > 5 AND "DLINKR" <= 6) OR ( ("DLINKR" > 6 AND "DLINKR" <= 7) AND "SUBREGION_" <= 1) OR

 "DLINKR" > 7) OR ("pool" >= 'S08' AND "pool" <= 'S20') OR ("pool" >= 'O17' AND "pool" <= 'O19')

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Additional References:

Aadland, L.P.,  C.M. Cook, M.T. Negus, H.G. Drewes, and  C.S. Anderson.  1991.  Microhabitat preferences of selected stream fishes and community-oriented approach to instream flow assessments.  Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Section of Fisheries, Minneapolis, Minnesota.  142 pp.

Becker, G.C.  1983.  Fishes of Wisconsin.  University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

Campbell, J.S., and H.R. MacCrimmon. 1970.  Biology of the emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides (Rafinesque) in Lake Simcoe, Canada.   Journal of Fish Biology 2(3):259-273.

Dewey, M.R., and C.A. Jennings.  1994.  Factors limiting the distribution of larval and juvenile fishes in vegetated habitats of the upper Mississippi River.  National Biological Survey, National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin for the National Biological Survey, Environmental Management Technical Center, Onalaska, Wisconsin.  EMTC 94-S005. Part I, 61 pp. Part II, 19 pp.

Douglas, N.H.  1974.  Freshwater fishes of Louisiana.  Claitor’s Publishing Division, Sponsored by Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.  443 pp.

Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill.  1974.  Northern fishes; with special reference to the upper Mississippi Valley.  University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.  414 pp.

Etnier, D.A., and W.E. Starnes.  1993.  The fishes of Tennessee.  University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.  681 pp.

Flitner, G.A.  1964.  Morphology and life history of the emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides.  Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.  213 pp.

Fuchs, E H.  1967.  Life history of the emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides, in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 96(3):247-256.

Gelwicks, G.T.  1995.  Fish movement between the lower Missouri River and a managed floodplain wetland in Missouri.  Master’s thesis. University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. 190 pp.

Kallemeyn, L.W., and  J. F. Novotny.  1977.  Fish and fish food organisms in various habitats of the Missouri River in South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Publication FWS/OBS 77/25, Washington, D.C.  100 pp.

Kelly, G., editor.  1986.  Animal habitat relations handbook.  Missouri Department of Conservation and U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Jefferson City, Missouri.  293 pp.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr.  1980.  Atlas of North American freshwater fishes.  North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina.  867 pp.

Loomis, T.M.  1997.  Survey of the fishes and habitat in the upper Moreau River, Perkins County, South Dakota.  Master’s thesis, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota.  120 pp.

Matthews, W. J., and D.C. Heins, editors.  1987.  Community and evolutionary ecology of North American stream fishes.  University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. viii + 310 pp.

Mizzi, J.A.  1994.  Zooplankton, macroinvertebrate, herptile, and ichthyofaunal biodiversity of riverine habitat on the upper Missouri River.  Master’s thesis, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota.  130 pp.

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Pflieger, W.L.  1971.  A distributional study of Missouri fishes.  University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History  20(3):225-570.

Pflieger, W.L.  1989a.  Aquatic community classification system for Missouri.  Missouri Department of Conservation.  Jefferson City, Missouri.  Aquatic Series No. 19. 70 pp. plus Supplement.

Pflieger, W.L.  1989b.  The stream resources of Missouri.  D-J Project - F-1-R-28.  Study S-20.  Missouri Department of Conservation, Columbia, Missouri.  

Pflieger, W.L., and T.B. Grace.  1987.  Changes in the fish fauna of the lower Missouri River, 1940-1983.  Pages 166-81 in W. J. Matthews and D. C Heins, editors.  Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott.  1991.  Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada.  American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20, Bethesda, Maryland. 183 pp.

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Sheehan, R.J., W.M. Lewis, and  L.R. Bodensteiner.  1990.  Winter habitat requirements and overwintering of riverine fishes.  Southern Illinois Fisheries Research Laboratory, Carbondale, Illinois.  D-J Project F-79-R, Study 101.  234 pp.

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Photo Credits:

Upper Left:       Photo courtesy of Konrad P. Schmidt, copyright Konrad P. Schmidt.

Upper Right:     Photo courtesy of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, http://www.iowadnr.com.