Iowa Fish Atlas

Freckled madtom-Noturus nocturnus

Native: Yes

State Rank: S2

ITIS Code: 164005          

National Rank: N5           

Global Rank: G5                                            Modeled By: Anna Loan-Wilsey

State Range:

The freckled madtom is an endangered species in Iowa (571 IAC 77.2(1) (2004)).  It was added to Iowa’s species list in 1984 when several specimens were collected from a single site in the English River (Harlan et al. 1987).  Since, this species has been found in another part of the lower Iowa River watershed as well as in the Mississippi River and one of its tributaries (LTRMP 2002; Olson 1998; Wilton et al. 2003). 

Habitat Affinities:

The freckled madtom prefers medium-sized creeks to large rivers of low to moderate gradient with clear to moderate turbidity and silty-gravel or sand-gravel substrates (Clay 1975; Etnier and Starnes 1993; Pflieger 1997; Robison and Buchanan 1988; Smith 1979). It is often found in riffles and pools where organic debris such as leaves or twigs tend to accumulate (Pflieger 1997). The freckled madtom avoids streams with shifting sand bottoms (Harlan et al. 1987).  Cross and Collins (1995) found the freckled madtom in trash piles against stream banks or in shallow pools underneath rocks.

Predictive Model(s):

Statewide Model: Range Only

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

Mississippi River Model:

The distribution is based upon existing collection records and professional review.

("pool" = 'S13')

Overall Prediction:

("pool" = 'S13')

Literature Cited:

Clay, W.M.  1975.  The fishes of Kentucky.  Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, Kentucky.  416 pp.

Cross, F.B., and J.T. Collins.  1995.  Fishes in Kansas.  University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Public Education Series No. 14, Lawrence, Kansas.   315 pp.

Endangered and threatened plant and animal species.  2004.  Iowa Administrative Code 

571: 77.2(1).

Etnier, D.A., and W.E. Starnes.  1993.  The fishes of Tennessee.  University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.  681 pp.

Harlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew.  1987.  Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323pp.

Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  2002.   Pool 13 database, 1990-2001.  Upper

Midwest Environmental Science Center, Bellevue, Iowa.

Olson, J.R. 1998.  Historic fish survey database.  Water Quality Bureau, Iowa

Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Pflieger, W.L.  1997.  The fishes of Missouri.  Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri.  372 pp.

Robison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1988.  Fishes of Arkansas.  University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas.  536 pp.

Smith, P.W.  1979.  The fishes of Illinois.  University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.  314 pp.

Wilton, T., K. Krier, and J. Mootz.  2003.  Stream Biological Assessment Database.

Environmental Services Division, Water Quality Bureau, TMDL and Water Quality Assessment Section, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Data Sources:

Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  2002.   Pool 13 database, 1990-2001.  Upper

Midwest Environmental Science Center, Bellevue, Iowa.

Olson, J.R. 1998.  Historic fish survey database.  Water Quality Bureau, Iowa

Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Paragamian, V.L.  1990.  Fish populations of Iowa rivers and streams.  Technical Bulletin

No. 3.  Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Wilton, T., K. Krier, and J. Mootz.  2003.  Stream Biological Assessment Database.

Environmental Services Division, Water Quality Bureau, TMDL and Water Quality Assessment Section, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Additional References:

Burr, B.M., and R.L. Mayden.  1982.  Life history of the freckled madtom, Noturus nocturnus, in Mill Creek, Illinois (Pisces: Ictaluridae).  University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Occasional Paper 98. 15 pp.

Cross, F.B.  1967.  Handbook of fishes of Kansas.  University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication  No. 45, Lawrence, Kansas.  357 pp.

Douglas, N.H.  1974.  Freshwater fishes of Louisiana.  Claitor’s Publishing Division, Sponsored by Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.  443 pp.

Echelle, A.A., and G.D. Schnell.  1976.  Factor analysis of species associations among fishes of the Kiamichi River, Oklahoma.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 105(1):17-31.

Grady, J.M., and W.H. LeGrande. 1992.  Phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of the madtom catfishes, genus Noturus Rafinesque (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae). Pages 747-777 in R. L. Mayden, editor.  Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calfiornia. xxvi + 969 pp.

Kelly, G., editor.  1986.  Animal habitat relations handbook.  Missouri Department of Conservation and U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Jefferson City, Missouri.  293 pp.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr.  1980.  Atlas of North American freshwater fishes.  North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina.  867 pp.

Lundberg, J.G.  1992. The phylogeny of ictalurid catfishes: a synthesis of recent work. Pages 392-420 in R. L. Mayden, editor.  Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes.  Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calfiornia.  969 pp.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr.  1991.  A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico.  Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

Pflieger, W.L.  1971.  A distributional study of Missouri fishes.  University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History  20(3):225-570.

Pflieger, W.L.  1989a.  Aquatic community classification system for Missouri.  Missouri Department of Conservation.  Jefferson City, Missouri.  Aquatic Series No. 19. 70 pp. plus Supplement.

Pflieger, W.L.  1989b.  The stream resources of Missouri.  D-J Project - F-1-R-28.  Study S-20.  Missouri Department of Conservation, Columbia, Missouri.  

Phillips, G.L., W.D. Schmid, and J.C. Underhill.  1982.  Fishes of the Minnesota region.  University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.  248 pp.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott.  1991.  Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada.  American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20, Bethesda, Maryland. 183 pp.

Sheehan, R.J., W.M. Lewis, and  L.R. Bodensteiner.  1990.  Winter habitat requirements and overwintering of riverine fishes.  Southern Illinois Fisheries Research Laboratory, Carbondale, Illinois.  D-J Project F-79-R, Study 101.  234 pp.

Taylor, W.R.  1969.  A revision of the catfish genus Noturus (Rafinesque) with an analysis of higher groups in the Ictaluridae.  Smithsonian Institution, U. S. National Museum Bulletin 282. 315 pp.

Thom, R.H., and J.H. Wilson.  1980.  The natural divisions of Missouri.  Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science  14:9-24.

Photo Credits:

Upper Left:       Photo courtesy of Garold W. Sneegas, copyright Garold W. Sneegas, Aquatic Kansas Images, http://www.nanfa.org/akiweb/AKI.htm.

Upper Right:     Photo courtesy of the Virtual Aquarium, The Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, http://www.cnr.vt.edu/efish/index.html.